The Ziggurats were constructed of mud bricks and hence over a period of time most have been lost to be merged with Earth but Pyramids with similar structure and purpose for afterlife made of stone block survive to this day. Thus a close examination of the construction of Pyramids give us a very good picture of the Ziggurat structures. The Ziggurats were/are constructed under the same mathematical principles as the Pyramids and hence understanding the construction mathematics of the Pyramids allow us to understand the construction mathematics of the Ziggurats which are the chief building of worship for babylonians for nearly 20 million years now. The Pyramids are constructed in accordance with the ‘Law of the Pyramidal construction’ . The angle of the wall of a Pyramid is determined by the size of the base square. Larger the ‘base square’ more slanting will be the angle of the walls and smaller the ‘base square’ steeper will be the angle of walls. In other words larger the ‘base square’ of a Pyramid lesser will be the angle of the walls with the horizontal base and smaller the ‘base square’ of a pyramid greater will be the angle of the walls with the horizontal base. Thus essentially the size of the ‘base square’ determines the angle of the walls with the horizontal ‘base square’. In a true Pyramid all four sides have the same angle with the horizontal ‘base square’. Thus once the size of the ‘base square’ of the Pyramid is set, the angle of the walls of the Pyramid are set in turn and in a true Pyramid, all walls have the same angle of inclination with the horizontal ‘base square’. Thus once the base of the Pyramid was built, the angle of the walls could not be changed. This is the ‘law of Pyramid Construction’.
Also a true Pyramid is a slice or part of a true Sphere, similar to what we cut from a water melon. Thus a Pyramid is in truth an inverted pie cut out from the Earth. Though Pyramids are Tomb Ziggurats for the Kings, Priests and Nobles but all Ziggurats were constructed on similar lines as Tomb Ziggurats or pyramids, which in turn are a copy of the Ziggurats and follow the same construction rules. Since each Ziggurat, Tomb Ziggurat or Pyramid is part of the Earth from which it is taken out, it represents the latitude and longitude of the place of its location, like the great Pyramid of Khufru, Giza, is located 30 degrees latitude. Now, the construction of a Ziggurat, ‘Tomb Ziggurat’ or Pyramid gets more complex. Because now the Ziggurat has to show the eccentric angle of rotation of the Earth, which is taken as 23.5 degrees but lies between 22 to 24.5 degrees over a period of 41,000 years. Because the Ziggurat and the ‘Tomb Ziggurat’ (Pyramid) are a pie taken out of the Earth, they should truly reflect the axis of rotation of the Earth. A Ziggurat or ‘Tomb Ziggurat’(Pyramid) made where the axis of rotation comes out from the Earth either near the North Pole or South Pole will be simple enough to make. A perfect true Pyramid will suffice to meet the needs on two places on Earth. But most Ziggurats and ‘Tomb Ziggurats’ (Pyramids) were constructed away from these ideal spots and had to incorporate the axis of rotation of the Earth in the architecture of the Ziggurats and ‘Tomb Ziggurats’ (Pyramids). This was done to bring these places of worship in this life (Ziggurat) and afterlife (Tomb Ziggurat) in perfect harmony with the motion of the Earth. As per Babylonian religion Mescac, this was most essential to synchronise and harmonise prayer and worship with nature. Another important aspect of harmonious worship with nature was/is regards the Sun. This was done by constructing the walls of the Ziggurat and Pyramid in four directions, with each wall of the Ziggurat facing one direction, North, South, West, East. This helped in harmonising the Prayers with movements and brightness of the Sun and could be adjusted in different seasons. The Ziggurat was brought in harmony with the eccentric rotation of the Earth by constructing special chambers inside the Ziggurat, which were so placed that their axis followed the axis of rotation of the Earth. Chambers placed exactly at angle of Earth’s eccentricity (24 degrees during Pyramidal construction) or multiples or divisions of these numbers were taken to be in harmony with the Earth’s motion and nature. Thus chambers placed at 23.5, 47, 70.5, 94, 117.5, 141, 164.5, …………so on and 11.75, 5.875 …. so on were considered in harmony with Earth’s motion and thus ideal for Prayers. The Law of Pyramidal Construction also gives us the Golden Sector Rectangle. The base of the Ziggurat is a Square whose perimeter is equal to the circumference of a circle with a a radius equal to the height of the Ziggurat. The apothem (distance from the top to the middle of one side) of the great Pyramid of Khufu, Giza, and the length of one half of base are in phi, golden section relationship. phi=0.618 Both the above laws are derived from the ‘Law of Pyramidal Construction’ and is true of all true pyramids. The King’s Chamber in the Ziggurat was placed in harmony with Earth’s motion. It was generally rectangular in shape with East to West wall : North to South wall in 2:1 ratio. As an example the Great Pyramid of Khufu, Giza has a height of 280 Egyptian Royal Cubits (481 feet), Base with a length of 440 Egyptian Royal Cubits (756 feet) and slope of 51.52 degrees. The King’s Chamber is placed at an angle of 23.5 degrees with the South vertices. The Queen’s Chamber is directly below apex (0 degrees) and 11.75 degrees from both South and North vertices. The sum of these angles come to 23.5 degrees which is in harmony with Earth’s motion.
Similar to the above Pyramid example, the King’s Chamber in the Ziggurat was constructed so as to be in harmony with Earth’s motion and Sun’s position. This was because the King was the Head Priest and the most important person to pray to the Mardok. Apart from giving harmony to the Prayers and Earth’s motion, Ziggurats and Tomb Ziggurats constructed in accordance with the ‘Law of Pyramidal Construction’ and ‘Golden Rectangle law’ were very stable and lasted very long. The great Pyramids would have survived intact without human interference for tens of thousands of years. Their architecture and laws governing their architecture were there to ensure that. The Babylonians had complete knowledge of Earth’s rotation , its eccentric axis of rotation, its changes, its periodicity and tried to bring the Ziggurats and ‘Tomb Ziggurats’ in harmony with it. Because in most Ziggurats, the sacrificial chamber and Prayer chamber was in the apex of the Ziggurat, so in many Ziggurats, the base square was made tilted at the angle of axis of rotation of the Earth and here the axis of rotation of the Earth was parallel with axis of the Ziggurat passing through its apex. Though such Ziggurats were slightly less stable structures but the Prayer chamber was in harmony with the motion of the Earth and this helped in harmonising the Prayers with nature, which is the goal of all Babylonian Prayers. An important inference which we can draw from the general construction of Ziggurats and construction of the great Pyramids in particular is that the Babylonians had exact standards of measurements of length, height, angle, weight and constructed these structures with precision. Another important result of these constructions is that the Babylonians had the requisite machines like pulleys, cranes, rock cutters, Saws, Chisels etc. to near perfection to perform these grand feats of marvellous construction, overlooked by the Mardok. Most of the Ziggurats in most nations of Babylon followed or preceded the direction orientation of the great Pyramid of Khufu, Giza, with a wall facing North, a wall facing South, a wall facing East, a wall facing West, even if the Ziggurat had more than four walls, as would have happened if the base of the Ziggurat had more than four sides. Even than four walls in North, South, East, West direction were there so as to harmonise the Prayers with the Earth and the Sun and the Moon. The Ziggurat Prayer room at the apex had at least four windows so that priest could know the position of the Sun. The Prayer was/is done facing the Sun at that particular time, which could be the North, South, East, West depending upon the time of the day. The apex and the Ziggurat axis was already aligned with the eccentric rotational axis of the Earth. Thus, both the precision axis of the Earth and position of Sun are taken into consideration for Prayers performed by the King and Priests. This was to bring their prayers in complete harmony with the nature and to intensify the communication with the Mardok. This has been the standard of Prayer in Mescac for 20 million years. When Prayer reading was done from the holy Babylonian Bibliya by the Priest in the Prayer Hall in the Lower Chamber involving many people, people faced the Sun and the Priest reader oriented himself obliquely to be more in harmony with the Sun. Thus, direction in which the Prayer was done is not set and depends on the time of the day and position of the Sun. This brought the Prayers in harmony with the Earth-Sun system and consequently with nature as a whole. When Prayers were performed at night, whether in the top Prayer chamber or lower Prayer hall, the Moon was taken as the direction of harmony and the worshipper prayed facing the Moon. The Moon is also very close to Earth and an important marker of harmonious relationship in nature. Thus when Moon was visible at night, it was taken as the marker and Prayer was and is performed facing it. In most Babylonian nations, the Moon took precedence over constellations as marker of harmony because of its proximity to the Earth. The Moon was sanctified because it was the best studied and understood celestial body in the Sky and served a very useful marker for harmony and Prayers. For the Prayers to be in harmony and synchronised with nature, the Earth formed the base and is the nearest celestial body. Its surface, size (radius and diameter), shape, direction of North pole and South pole, its electromagnetic field, its distance from the Moon and the Sun, its position in the Solar System with respect to the Sun and other Planets, its rotation and its axis have been studied by Babylonians over millions of years and were known to them and were sought to be inculcated in the construction of Ziggurats and Pyramids. But not all parameters but at least some of them. The Moon is the next nearest celestial body. The size of the Moon, its distance from the Earth and rotation on its own axis have been known to Babylonians and are sought to be incorporated in the design and construction of the Ziggurat. Though the Planets Mercury, Venus and Mars are nearer to the Earth than the Sun but their position varies according to their revolution around the Sun and thus were unreliable markers of harmony and Synchronisation. For the above reason the Sun becomes the next nearest celestial body. Its huge and the Earth and the other Planets rotate around the Sun. The Babylonians calculated the size of the Sun, its mass, distance of Earth and other Planets from the Sun. Thus harmony and synchronising the Prayers with the Sun becomes very important and thus some of these parameters were and are incorporated in the design and construction of the Ziggurat. The Sun provides the heat and light and energy to Earth, because of which all life is possible on Earth. Thus Sun became the focus of Prayer and all Prayers to the Mardok are performed facing in the direction of the Sum. As the position of the Sun in relation to the Earth varied with the day, so the direction of Prayer during daylight hours was facing in the direction of the Sun at that particular time. For this the Prayer chamber and Prayer hall had windows and various markers on the inside to show the position of the Sun as regards the Prayer chamber, Prayer hall and hence with the Ziggurat. There was a chart kept inside the Ziggurat which showed the position of the Sun during different parts of the day and different times of the year. The same was depicted on the walls of the Prayer chamber and Prayer hall in the Ziggurat. The next constant feature in the skies are the various constellations. But they are very far from Earth. They were taken into consideration while performing Prayers during the night, particularly when the Moon was not visible. The Babylonians knew about some of these constellations, marked them in the sky, gave a special name to each and synchronised some of their Prayers with these constellations. Some constellations the Babylonians noticed are Aquarius-the water bearer-a large but faint constellation in the southern sky, Aries-the ram-midsize constellation in the northern hemisphere, Cancer-the crab-rich in open clusters and double stars, Capricornus-the sea goat, Draco-the dragon, Gemini-the twins-high in the winter sky, Leo-the lion-trademark sickle, Libra-the scales, Opiuchus- the snake bearer- evening skies in the summer, Orion- the hunter, Pegasus- the winged horse- great square, Pisces- the fishes, Sagittarius- the archer-largest constellation in the southern hemisphere, Scorpius- the scorpion- one of the brightest constellations, Taurus- the bull- one of the most prominent and visible constellations in the northern winter sky, Virgo-the virgin- largest constellation of the Zodiac. Because of the multiplicity of the constellations and their visibility to the naked eye and their formations, to perform Prayers in harmony with one or more constellations was difficult and was performed mainly by the Priests or under their guidance. Because of the size needed to incorporate all the above elements, that is the Earth, the Moon, the Sun, and the Constellations in a Ziggurat, only the Central Ziggurat was big enough to do so. Hence Prayers in the Central Ziggurat were most in harmony and synchronisation with nature. This could not possibly be achieved in the construction of much smaller Peripheral Ziggurats. Thus for Babylonians, the study of Astronomy and measurements of various parameters of the Earth, the Moon, the Sun and the Sky was just not a matter of scientific curiosity but also a religious requirement because worship to the Mardok under Mescac required the Prayers to be in correct orientation and harmony with nature. This is a vital requirement in Mescac for the successful outcome of Prayers. Hence, Prayers performed in the heart and mind are considered the purest form of Prayer and deemed to be the highest honour to the Mardok because they are the most harmonious and synchronised, because the human heart and mind can be completely harmonised and synchronised with nature, because of human origin and evolution, as this has progressed in complete harmony and synchronisation with nature. Cacama! The other way of looking at Ziggurats is that each tier of the Ziggurat is a Pyramid in accordance with the ‘Law of Pyramid Construction’, with its upper part removed and another Pyramid constructed on it in accordance with the ‘Law of Pyramid construction’ for the next tier, its upper part removed and another Pyramid constructed on it in accordance with the ‘Law of Pyramid construction’ for the next tier, and so on till the desired number of tiers are achieved, usually seven in case of Central Ziggurat. The Borsippa Ziggurat dedicated to Nabu, deity of science and learning built by the holy high Priest and holy high King King Nebuchadnezzar about 2500 years back. The base of the Ziggurat is 297 feet x 297 feet. There are seven terraces and rises 231 feet. The central staircase led all the way to the prayer chamber called E-GAL or KIKKUNUM. It is here that the Priests and Kings and his family perform their Prayers to the Mardok. Side stairs are constructed on each terrace to give access to the floor of each tier. The King is the Head Priest and Prayerer in the Kingdom and performs rituals, Prayers and sacrifices in accordance with Mescac to the Mardok, to seek blessings for the people, the nation, his family and for himself. The Central Ziggurat Priest performs these duties on a daily basis when the King does not do so himself. Again the Borsippa Ziggurat follows the true Pyramid pattern in its parts and as a whole and this is to ensure that all its tiers and it as a whole are in harmony with the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun and nature as a whole.
The great Pyramid of Giza was constructed by Pharaoh Khufu more than 4000 years ago. The Pharaoh Khufu was in a unique position to build such a monument. The Pyramid itself is unique and unparalleled in world history. Pharaoh Khufu was able to amalgamate a huge amount of astronomical data in the construction and architecture of this Pyramid. The Pyramid has been built with nearly 2300000 stone blocks. The base of the Pyramid covers 55,000 m2(592000ft2) and each side covers about 20,000 m2 (218,000 ft2). The interior temperature is constant and equals the average temperature on Earth, 20 degrees centigrade or 68 degrees Fahrenheit. The outer mantle is composed of 144,000 covering stones, 100 inches thick and weighing 15 tonnes. These casing stones are made of highly polished limestone. These reflected Sunlight and made the Pyramid shine like a Jewel. It is also known as IKHET or glorious light. The side walls of the Pyramid are indented and concave, the radius of each being equal to the radius of the Earth. The cornerstone foundations of the Pyramid have ball and socket construction for heat expansion and earthquakes. The weight of the Pyramid is 5,955,000 tonnes, which when multiplied by 10 ^8 gives the mass of the Earth. The descending passage pointed to the pole star Alpha Draconis. This was the North Star at that time. The Southern shaft of the King’s chamber pointed to the star Al Nitak (Zeta Orionis) in the constellation Orion. The Orion constellation is associated with Babylonian deity Osiris. The great Pyramid of Khufu, Giza is located at the centre of the landmass of the Earth. Twice the perimeter of the bottom of the granite coffer times 10^8 is the Sun,s mean radius (270.45378502 pyramid inches x 10^8 = 427316 miles). The height of the Pyramid times 10^9 is the average distance to the Sun. The length of the main passage times 7 times 10^7 is the mean distance to the Moon.( 215.973053 pyramid inches x 7 x 10^7= 238,865 miles). A line extending from the apex points to the star Alcyona. Alcyona is the brightest star in the Pleiades open cluster , younger cluster aged less than 50 million years located approximately 400 light years from Earth. It is believed that our Solar system revolves around the Star. The average land height above sea level is 5,449 inches, the exact height of the Pyramid is 5,449 inches. The holy Cubit was 63.57 cm, at Egypt level, the radius of Earth is 6357 Km or ten million Cubits. If you turn the base length into holy Cubits, you get 365.2425, which is the exact solar year at their latitude. Holy cubit was 25 Egyptian inches. The inner dimensions of King’s chamber are 309-421-515 Egyptian inches. They fit exactly with a pythagorean triangle. The great Pyramid of Khufu is located at 29.9792 N is exactly the same as speed of light 299,792 Km/sec.
Phi is the only number which has the mathematical property of its square being one more than itself phi + 1 = phi square By applying pythagorean equation, a right triangle of sides a, b and c or a golden triangle of sides ✔️⌀, 1 and ⌀
⌔This creates a Pyramid with a base width of 2 and a height of the square root of phi, 1.272. The ratio of the height to the base is 0.636. In a Pyramid based on golden triangle, the surface area of the four sides would be a golden ratio of the surface area of the base The great Pyramid of Khufu is also based in pi. Construct a circle with a circumference of 8 the same a Pyramid perimeter, with its base width of 2. Than fold the arc of the semicircle at a right angle, the height of semicircle will be the radius of the circle, such is the case with the great Pyramid. If we are to reconstruct the great Pyramid of Khufu, we will have to acknowledge the genius and brilliance of the man behind it, Pharaoh Khufu. Pharaoh Khufu can be regarded as the greatest mathematician to have lived on the planet and one of its best inventors. For Pharaoh Khufu, the great Pyramid was just not his tomb but it was his biography. In one building, he had to incorporate all his inventions and all his mathematical genius and equations. But first we must know what was known to the Babylonians in the time of Pharaoh Khufu. The Babylonians knew about the shape of Earth, the Sun, Earth’s position in the Solar system and Solar system’s place in the galaxy. Over thousands and millions of years of astronomical data, the Babylonians had calculated the size and mass of Earth, the position of North pole and South pole, electromagnetic field of the Earth, the height above sea level of various landmasses on Earth, mean temperature at these landmasses. They also had calculated the size and mass of the Sun and its various distances from the Earth. The Babylonians had calculated the axis of motion of the Earth, the variations of this axis with time and its periodicity. The data and observations have to be done over a period of more than 50,000 years to extrapolate the data in a form of understandable statistics and parameters. Thus these observations are not possible over short period of time and all data was meticulously collected in various nations of Babylon, from east Persia to Morocco in the west but its centre of data analysis were in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Similarly the observation of constellations and their data also occurred over hundreds of thousands of years. Since the Human Babylonians have existed on this Planet for nearly 40 million years now, the observation of the Sun and Moon and the Stars started that long ago. For the first 20 million years, the data was passed by mouth, in the last 20 million years on paper and clay tablets. Thus the data incorporated in the great Pyramid was available to Pharaoh Khufu and he brilliantly condensed this data into the construction of the great Pyramid. But the construction of the great Pyramid presented some practical obstacles to Pharaoh Khufu, the stones had to be collected, transported, glued together into exact dimensions of his drawings in which he had incorporated all the Babylonian astronomical data of the time he could. he could not incorporate all the data. To overcome these obstacles, he made a brilliant plan, he travelled the length and breadth of Egypt and charted all its territory into a geographical map. The Latitudes and Longitudes used to divide the Earth into various sections and pinpoint a location on a Map were already known to the Babylonians. He collected the Maps from around the world and came to the conclusion that Giza formed the centre of landmass of the Earth. He visited Giza, and located a hill of appropriate size made of granite. This he made the base of the Pyramid as well as stones for the Pyramid. Thus in a masterstroke of genius, he overcame the twin problems, requirement of a rigid structure for base of such a heavy Pyramid as well as transport of such heavy stones as were needed for its construction. Some of the instruments and tools known to Babylonians at that time were the axe, Saw, drilling machine, wheels, pulleys, levers, shovels and compass (both direction finding and angle measuring). Iron was also known to Babylonians by the Meteorites that landed over them through such a long period of time. But Iron available through Meteorites and some through mining was in very small quantities. It was more precious than Gold and hence its use controlled by the Kings of Babylon. So, King Khufu had access to a reasonable amount of Iron in the vicinity of several tonnes. Some was ready to be imported from Mesopotamia. Pharaoh Khufu ordered the making of long Saws (6 to 9 feet in length). They were actually Steel Saws as Cobalt and Nickel was already mixed in them and Babylonians had learned that adding Carbon made it even stronger and long lasting. These Steel Saws were used to cut the stone blocks of exact size and shape. Also Pharaoh Khufu invented the Steel drill with a pulley system for making drilling holes into the hill and cut large pieces of hill out and than use the Steel Saws to cut smaller blocks of stones in exact dimensions as required. The Pharaoh Khufu also needed the weight of each stone used for construction to incorporate the data about the mass of Earth, the Sun and the Moon into the Pyramid. The King got steel balance made at the site, than several balance weights were set up and all stones measured against these balance weights. All known length measurements units like the Royal Cubit, Meter, Centimeter, Inch, Feet, Mile were known to the Babylonians. The Babylonians also knew the weight measurements Kilogram, Gram, Pound, Onses. This is very important because if Pharaoh Khufu was to incorporate as much data as possible in one single Pyramid, he had to use all the measurements in different units to do it. Thus when we solve for the data given in the the great Pyramid, we have to take this into account. Having solved these problems, the next problem was how to carry such heavy stones to build higher tiers of Pyramid. This would have required the most time. To circumvent this problem Pharaoh Khufu invented the Crane. He built a Swan like structure, with the beak of the Swan having a pulley, through which a steel cable passed. At the proximal end of the cable was a wheel and pulley system which could be operated by both Men and beast and a stone could be lifted up after tying it with ropes and attaching it to hook at the distal end of the cable. After this the proximal wheel was rotated and the steel cable wounded around it to shorten the cable and lift the stone. Addition of a proximal pulley gave mechanical advantage and made the lift much easier. The wheel was unwound to drop the stone lower. In this way heavy stones could be carried to whatever height it was needed to be carried.
Even if only 4 such machines were built, they could transport all the building blocks of the Pyramid in a very short time. Also the additional stones and limestone covering that were needed were transported by water on the Nile in especially constructed Cargo boats and from the river bank to the Pyramid site in especially constructed Cargo chariots drawn by horses, Camels. Thus the drawing and building of the great Pyramid of Khufu was a very sophisticated process made possible by the mathematical brilliance and inventive genius of Pharaoh Khufu. But if the great Pyramid of Khufu was to last a long time as was the intention so as to convey exact assimilated information in it to the later generations, it had to hold together the building stones for a long time. To achieve this, Pharaoh Khufu invented a mortar of such chemical formula and such extraordinary effectiveness that it has not been replicated till date and the stone blocks of the great Pyramid of Khufu have remained glued together till now. The great Pyramid of Khufu has done more to preserve the knowledge gained by Babylonians over millions of years than any other structure known to mankind. In a way the great Pyramid of Khufu is the biggest book on the Planet on Mathematics, and Astronomy as also on Babylonian religion Mescac. The great Pyramid of Khufu epitomises the balance and harmony of nature which are the basic requirements and need to practice Mescac and bring peace and joy in one’s life through it. Cacama!